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crop yield index percentage formula

Modelling yield within the context of a cropping system 22 4. option. The idea for this chart is taken from Ausubel, Wernick, and Waggoner (2013).4, The authors write: ‘A combination of agricultural technologies raised yields, keeping downward pressure on the extent of cropland, sparing land for nature.Countering the global rise of population and affluence by parents and workers, consumers and farmers restrained the expansion of arable land by changing tastes and lifting yields. The challenge of agricultural sustainability has become more intense in recent years with the sharp rise in the cost of food and energy, climate change, water scarcity, degradation of natural ecosystems and biodiversity, the financial crisis and expected increase in population. Percentage yield = $\frac{0.6}{1.4}$$\times$ 100%. However, a key driver in the initial rise in yield is considered to be the adoption of improved corn varieties from plant breeding developments. The idea for this chart is taken from Ausubel, Wernick, and Waggoner (2013). First published in 2017; most recent substantial revision in September 2019. Add country Solution: Substitute the values in the corresponding formula. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. DOI: 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2013.00561.x. Some countries, including Ethiopia, Nigeria and Algeria have followed the rest of the world in yield increases. The formula for percent yield is: Example: The medical drug aspirin is made from salicylic acid. Specifically, year-to-year variation of soybean shows the highest correlation with the drought index, followed by … This article previously covered aspects of agricultural land use; you now find this material in our entry on. crop area, yield and production in the context of mixed, repeated and continuous cropping. SPI) for the study period. This trade-off between land use for agriculture and yields is very clearly exemplified in a comparison between cereal production in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Jesse H. Ausubel, Iddo K. Wernick, Paul E. Waggoner (2013) – Peak Farmland and the Prospect for Land Sparing. Estimating crop yield. OUP is the world's largest university press with the widest global presence. For example, globally in 2014, the index value was 0.3; this means only 30% of the arable land area was needed to produce the same quantity of crops relative to 1961. The trade-off between higher yields and land use, Arable land needed to produce a fixed quantity of crops (1961 = 1), Cropland per capita vs. population density, Global agricultural land use by major crop type, Global land spared as a result of cereal yield improvements, Land use per 100 kilocalories by food and production type, Land use per unit protein by food and production system, Land use vs. yield change in cereal production, Peaking farmland: global arable and permanent crop area and Ausubel (2013) projections of peak farmland, Projections for global peak agricultural land. defined as the relative area required by sole crops to produce the same yield as intercrops (Mead and Willey, 1980). The absolute growth rate is the slope of the curve. As part of the regular field monitoring, identify the physiological maturity stage in the field. By extension of Kataoka's approach, Eskridge (1990) derived indexes of yield reliability based on stability measures of Type 2 (Shukla's stability variance and regression coefficient). The LER interaction (Table is the ratio of land required by pure (sole) crop to produce the same yield as that of intercrop was determined according to the following formula: Intercropped com LER = Y CB in mixed stand + Y MZ Crop load adjustment: Practices that either enhance the yield per vine (such as increased water or nitrogen application from bloom to véraison) or decrease the yield per vine (such as reduction in water after fruit set, or actively removing fruit prior to harvest). Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Dr. Halmi, you may look for CPI (Crop Productivity Index), an index can be used to rate the potential yield of one soil against that of another over a period of time. Harvest index is the major factor which affects the crop production. This has inevitably allowed us to ‘spare’ land we would have otherwise had to convert for cereal production. All Rights Reserved. A Crop Circle Farm can double or triple that depending on the type of tomato. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce these in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. For many, changes in the arable land have been minimal (or have declined). In most cases, for most small businesses, you can use a basic formulas, such as Y = (I)(G) + (I)(1-G)(R), to calculate yield. An average yield of 1,200 dozen (14,400 pounds/ears) can be expected from a cultivated row farm acre. To calculate yield, use the head or pod number per metre square already calculated, count the number of grains in at least 10 heads or pods and calculate average number of grains per head or pod. This figure is based on the combination of two datasets: data from 1929-1955 is based on figures in Engler and del Pozo (2013), which has been combined with UN Food and Agricultural Organization statistics from 1961 onwards.2. Today, the world can produce almost three-times as much cereal from a given area of land as it did in 1961. This ‘spared’ land amounts to 1.26 billion hectares in 2014– roughly equal to the area of Mexico and Europe combined. Predicting a crop yield before harvest can aid in planning the use of your garden space. This entry can be cited as: Our World in Data is free and accessible for everyone. Rearrange the above formula to obtain theoretical yield formula . Ciencia e investigación agraria. Data from 1961 onwards is taken from FAOstat; database online here. for monitoring crop condition and forecasting yield (Brown et al., 2008). The UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) publish yield estimates across a range of crop commodities by country over this period. Most of our improvements in cereal production have arisen from improvements in yield. In this study, we will consider five districts in the northern part of Ghana to estimate crop yield using time series models for the purpose of estimating crop production losses. In the charts we see the average agricultural yield of particular crops over the long-term in the United Kingdom, from 1885 onwards. Determine the theoretical yield of the formation of geranyl formate from 375 g of geraniol. Select the purchase The formula to use is: [(pounds of harvested ear corn) / (factor from table 2)] x 1000 = bushels per acre For example, if 13.8 pounds of ear corn were harvested at 29% moisture, the estimated yield would be [(13.8 ÷ 86.7) x 1,000] = 159 bushels per acre It would take 25 per cent more land to have produced the crops raised on Farm No. Usually, percent yield is lower than 100% because the actual yield is often less than the theoretical value. Procedure. crops grown here are yam, millet, rice, maize, sorghum, soybeans, groundnut and cassava. Available online. This item is part of JSTOR collection Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. With increasing demands for food and agricultural products, intensification of smallholder production system becomes increasingly necessary. metre is factored by 85 percent to give a yield estimate of 25.5 bu. Please consult our full legal disclaimer. Share of global habitable land needed for agriculture if everyone had the diet of... Share of land area used for arable agriculture, Share of land used for permanent meadows and pastures, The change of cereal yield vs. land used for cereal production, Tractors per 100 square kilometres of arable land. Since the turn of the millennium however, cereal yields in the UK have been relatively stagnant. Overall, we see that improvements in cereal yields from the 19th century into the first half of the 20th century were relatively slow– by the 1940s, yields were typically in the range of 2-2.5 tonnes per hectare. Have we achieved this through land expansion or improved yields? Am accessible overview of the history of corn can be found here. At full harvestable maturity (HM), plot grain yield is measured from a 5-m 2 harvest area. Online here. Engler and del Pozo (2013) – Assessing long- and short-term trends in cereal yields: the case of Chile between 1929 and 2009. C. Yield Evaluation Economic yields of grain crops are dependent on their rates of growth and on the efficiency with which they parti­ tion dry matter to the different plant organs. As we see, average corn yields in the United States remained relatively flat throughout the 1800s until the 1930s. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. This expression, which was also presented by Working, is an arithmetic mean of yield relatives weighted by given acreage. The increase can be plotted as a logarithmic or exponential curve in many cases. Economic yield HI = x 100 Total biological yield Using Table 1 determine the grain weight for the crop concerned (C) Yield in t/ha = (A × B × C) / 10,000; For example, to calculate a wheat yield where: Average number of heads/pods per m 2 is 220 (A) Average number of grains per head/pod is 24 (B) Weight of 100 grains of wheat is 3.4g (per Table 1) (C) Yield in t/ha = (220 × 24 × 3.4) / 10,000 = 1.79 For context, this difference is approximately equal to the land area of Mexico. Journal of Farm Economics The FAO report yield values as the national average for any given year; this is calculated by diving total crop output (in kilograms or tonnes) by the area of land used to grow a given crop (in hectares). It has become familiar to millions through a diverse publishing program that includes scholarly works in all academic disciplines, bibles, music, school and college textbooks, business books, dictionaries and reference books, and academic journals. From 1961 to 2014, global cereal production has increased by 280 percent. However, a failure to increase agricultural productivity in many Sub-Saharan countries has led to large increases in land used for cereal production. However, if global average cereal yields were to have remained at their 1961 levels, we see the amount of additional land (in blue) which we would have had to convert to arable land if we were to achieve the same levels of cereal production. Predicting how much each person in your household consumes will also help you determine how much to plant. This is the definition given by the UN’s Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in their glossary that is online here. Weather data for modelling crop yield 19 3.3.3. • Crop modelling: establish a statistical relation between crop yield and crop variety, agro-meteorological factors and soil conditions for predicting yield. Land use for cereal production in South Asia has increased by less than 20 percent since 1961, meanwhile cereal yields have more than tripled – which meant that much more food could be produced in South Asia without an equivalent extension of the agricultural land. The economic yield is a fraction of dry matter produced; the harvest index forms a useful measure of crop yield potential. A chemist making geranyl formate uses 375 g of starting material and collects 417g of purified product. Our articles and data visualizations rely on work from many different people and organizations. WeedSOFT 8X is a web-based competition model that can be used to estimate early-season yield … The yield of a crop can be basically depends upon many factors that may be endogenous factors or exogenous factors. In the period since 1940, yields have increased more than five-fold. Recently, agricultural technologies which increase food production sustainably at the same t… Productivity gains between the 1950s and 1990s was rapid, growing 2-3 fold over this period. Most European, American (both North and Latin American), Asian and Pacific countries have seen a much larger increase in cereal yields relative to area used for production. The origin and history of corn crops is an interesting topic and widely discussed within the scientific literature. What caused this significant drive in yield improvements? Using the harvest index obtained from the hill sample, plot straw yield is estimated from plot grain yield. All of our charts can be embedded in any site. In these trends we see large regional differences in this yield-land use trade-off. While the lost yield is unfortunate, it can provide a teachable moment regarding crop-yield interference. In most of the cases yield data are not recorded but obtained by dividing the production data by the data on area harvested. 2013. A bit of both. This is an important contrast to Africa where results are more mixed. Data on yields of permanent crops are not as reliable as those for temporary crops either because most of the area information may correspond to planted area, as for grapes, or because of the scarcity and unreliability of the area figures reported by the countries, as for example for cocoa and coffee.'5. There are likely to be certain regional and seasonal differences in yield within a given country, however, reported average yields still provide a useful indication of changes in productivity over time and geographical region. Percentage yield = $\frac{Actual\; yield}{Theoretical\; yield}$$\times$ 100%. The data produced by third parties and made available by Our World in Data is subject to the license terms from the original third-party authors. When citing this entry, please also cite the underlying data sources. There is therefore an important relationship between yields improvements and land use. In this formula, the demo site with 30 plants per sq. Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. A Crop Circle Farm produces 3,200 dozen (38,400 pounds/ears) on an acre comprising 8 double Crop Circles growing 2,400 individual corn stalks producing 2 cobs each on average. The initial period of yield gains in the late 1930s-early 1940s coincides with the transition period of farmers from open-pollinated varieties to hybrids. This is taken from World Bank (2008) – World Development Report (2008): Agriculture for Development. Potato yields have also almost doubled, increasing from just over 20 tonnes in 1960 to more than 40 tonnes per hectare in 2014. ’ on the chart.The crop production index (PIN) is the sum of crop commodities produced (after deductions of quantities used as seed and feed). Since 1960, yields in sugar beet have more than doubled, rising from 30 tonnes to more than than 80 tonnes per hectare. The foregoing explanation presents the usual crop-yield index as a ratio of acreage aggregates, but it may also be looked upon as a Percentage yield = 42.9%. We will always indicate the original source of the data in our documentation, so you should always check the license of any such third-party data before use and redistribution. License: All of Our World in Data is completely open access and all work is licensed under the Creative Commons BY license. In agriculture, the yield (also known as "agricultural productivity" or "agricultural output") is a measurement of the amount of a crop grown, or product such as wool, meat or milk produced, per unit area of land.The seed ratio is another way of calculating agricultural productivity.. We currently use approximately 50 percent of global habitable land for agriculture; without cereal yield increases, this may have risen to 62 percent. Request Permissions. Vol.40 no.1 Santiago Apr. The standard “appropriate” range falls between an index score of 5 and 10. specified crop growth period. Crop growth rate is a measure of the increase in size, mass or number of crops over a period of time. Overall, crop yield variability can be explained by the drought index (i.e. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. The FAO explains the construction of the PIN in detail here. In 2014, we used 16% more land for cereal production than we did in 1961 (approximately equivalent to double the area of Germany). The most widely used formula for the calculation of crop yield index numbers may be designated algebraically in the following way: Ea, Eal (1) where yl = given yield, yo = base yield, and a = given acreage. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. At 12-22 weeks after sowing it is possible to make an estimate of your crops yield. In the chart we see the change in average yield for key crop commodities since 1961. Improved harvest index of the represents increased physiological capacity to mobilize photosynthates and translocate them into organs having economic yield. If the actual and theoretical yield are the same, the percent yield is 100%. Grain yield 1 UAE = x Land area Duration of crop xviii) Harvest Index The harvest index is expressed as the percent ratio between the economic yield and total biological yield and was suggested by Nichiporovich (1951). In the chart we see that the global area under cereal production (in blue) has increased from 625 to 721 million hectares from 1961-2014. Help us do this work by making a donation. The FAO explains the construction of the PIN in detail here. This process of cross-breeding between open-pollinated varieties, combined with improved breed selection practices is thought to define the key turning point in US corn yields.1, In the chart we see the average yields in key cereal crops (wheat, barley and oats) in Chile from 1929-2014. Washington, DC: World Bank. Relative growth rate is the slope of a … 7.2), can readily be appreciated by possible users of recommended varieties. It is surprising the difference a slight variation in seed size or germination makes to the seeding rate required to … values in 1961 are equal to 1.0. 1 at average yields. Online here.The original sources given by my source are Evenson and Gollin 2003 and FAO 2006a. If distributed equally, cereal production per person has increased despite a growing population. This agricultural expansion would likely have been into fertile forested land, resulting in a loss of up to one-third of the world’s forests. If we compare this increase to that of total population (which increased only 136 percent over the same period), we see that global cereal production has increased at a much faster rate than that of population. Percentage yield= (Actual yield/theoretical yield )x100. 4 Approach 1: high-yielding fields, experimental stations and 23 growers contests 4.1.1. The crop biological yield refers to the total dry matter accumulation of a plant system. Harvest index = lbs of grain / (lbs stover + lbs grain) For example, 175 bushel (175 bu x 56 lbs/bu = 9,800 lbs) corn yield and a 4.5 ton (4.5 ton x 2,000 lbs/ton = 9,000 lbs) stover yield would result in a harvest index of: We see UK yields in sugar beet and potatoes tend to have much higher yields than cereal crops by mass (although they are likely to have a much higher percentage of water weight). A simple method to estimate harvest index in grain crops Armen R. Kemaniana,*, Claudio O. Sto¨ckleb,1, David R. Hugginsc,2, Luis M. Viegad,3 a Blackland Research and Extension Center, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Temple, TX 76502, USA b Biological Systems Engineering Department, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6120, USA c USDA-ARS, Washington State … The crop production index (PIN) is the sum of crop commodities produced (after deductions of quantities used as seed and feed). grain yield, plant height, maturity, and genetic pedigree. Differences in genotype merit, expressed in percentage values (Fig. Increasing yields reduces the pressure of expanding agricultural land. How have crop yields changed over the long-term? Our World In Data is a project of the Global Change Data Lab, a registered charity in England and Wales (Charity Number 1186433). It is weighted by the commodity prices. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. In order to grow more food, we can increase the output from a given area of land (called ‘intensification’), or expand the area over which we grow our food (called ‘extensification’). Overall, this means we use less land per person than we did fifty years ago. Harvest index is defined as the pounds of grain divided by the total pounds of above ground biomass (stover plus grain). Crop yield can also refer to … Indicators commonly used in agriculture include vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), that track crop progress and evolution in green biomass amount (Becker-Reshef et al. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. Similarly to cereal yields, productivity gains in sugar beet and potatoes have been most impressive over the latter half of the 20th century. ©2000-2021 ITHAKA. 1. This visualization shows the index of the arable land area needed to produce an equivalent aggregate of crop production, relative to the land area needed in 1961 i.e. • Allometric models: define a mathematical relation between plant morphological characteristics and crop yield. The average cereal yield has increased by 175 percent since 1961. ( Stutley, 2008 ) the PDF from your email or your account in 2014– roughly equal the. Unfortunate, it can provide a teachable moment regarding crop-yield interference extensive 1960... Download the PDF from your email or your account moreover, since wheat is 27.215,! A statistical relation between crop yield – World Development Report ( 2008 ): agriculture for.. A donation increases in land used for cereal production has increased despite a growing population 30 tonnes to more than. Work from many different people and organizations large regional differences in this formula the... Development Report ( 2008 ) land used for cereal production has increased by 280 percent 40... Of tomato or have declined ) usually, percent yield is a web-based competition that.: establish a statistical relation between plant morphological characteristics and crop variety agro-meteorological. 1800S until the 1930s, mass or number of crops over a period of farmers from open-pollinated varieties hybrids!, this means we use less land per person has increased despite a growing population over a period of from... 417G of purified product across a range of crop yield grain yield of particular crops over a period yield... Plant morphological characteristics and crop yield will be higher when its harvest index will be higher provided source! Increased by 175 percent since 1961 upon many factors that may be endogenous factors or exogenous.... \Frac { 0.6 } { 1.4 } $ $ \times $ 100 % explained by the data on harvested. Charts can be found here forecasting yield ( Brown et al., 2008 ) of the cases data... The late 1930s-early 1940s coincides with the widest global presence increasing demands for Food and agricultural (! Yield is a fraction of dry matter accumulation of a crop yield use, distribute and. It did in 1961 crops ( wheat, barley and oats ) use, distribute, education! It furthers the University 's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, reproduce. Cropping system 22 4 changes in the chart we see large regional differences genotype! And code produced by our World in data are completely open access under the Creative Commons license! \Frac { Actual\ ; yield } $ $ \times $ 100 % data on area harvested include incomplete competing... Use and population measured from 1961 onwards is taken from FAOstat ; database online here s. Most recent substantial revision in September 2019 we would have otherwise had convert... Of aspirin 2014, global cereal production has followed very different paths in Sub-Saharan Africa and.... A crop yield will be higher when its harvest index will be higher when its harvest is! Charts we see index trends in cereal production has followed very different paths in Sub-Saharan Africa Asia. 85 percent to give a yield estimate of your crops yield be higher its. Gains in the arable land have been most impressive over the long-term in the chart we the. Percent yield is dependent, therefore, upon several aspects of the regular field monitoring, identify the physiological stage... Household consumes will also help you determine how much to plant the long-term in the corresponding formula crop yield index percentage formula. With increasing demands for Food and agricultural Organization ( FAO ) in their glossary that is online here the Food... Predicting how much to plant but also be able to accurately calculate seeding rates we. To benchmark yield and quantify yield gaps 23 4.1 becomes increasingly necessary plotted cereal crops ( wheat, and. Relatively stagnant has inevitably allowed us to ‘ spare ’ land amounts to 1.26 billion hectares in roughly., mass or number of crops over a period of yield gains in the chart we see large regional in... Amounts to 1.26 billion hectares in 2014– roughly equal crop yield index percentage formula the total dry matter produced ; the harvest forms. Of particular crops over the latter half of the formation of geranyl formate from 375 g of geraniol factors may! Sole crops to produce the same yield as intercrops ( Mead and Willey 1980... Kingdom, from 1885 onwards crop biological yield refers to the total dry matter produced ; the harvest index a... 'S largest University Press with the widest crop yield index percentage formula presence by 85 percent to give a yield of., land use ; you now find this material in our entry on straw yield is unfortunate, can... Of farmers from open-pollinated varieties to hybrids since 1960, yields have almost... We estimated would be 40 bu/acre ( 1097/27.215 ) or 40 bushels acre. Entry on or improved yields a credit card or bank account with ‘ spared ’ land amounts to 1.26 hectares! Arable land have been relatively stagnant corn yields in the period since,... The FAO explains the construction of the plant ‘ crop yield be cited as: our World yield... In percentage values ( Fig, it can provide a teachable moment regarding crop-yield interference completely open access under Creative... Uses satellite imagery techniques in predicting yield and population measured from 1961 onwards is taken World... States remained relatively flat throughout the 1800s until the 1930s in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia between production! Our articles and data visualizations rely on work from many different people and organizations has by! On work from many different people and organizations capacity to mobilize photosynthates translocate. 14,400 pounds/ears ) can be found here since 1960, yields in the charts we large... All visualizations, data, and reproduce in any site have increased more than than 80 per... And agricultural products, intensification of smallholder production system becomes increasingly necessary demo site with 30 plants per sq here. In yield increases or triple that depending on the type of tomato the drought index ( i.e: World... Covered aspects of the develop­ mental morphology of the University 's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, education... Site with 30 plants per sq to 2014, global cereal production yield... Yield … in maximising yield of 1,200 dozen ( 14,400 pounds/ears ) can be expected a. Approaches to benchmark yield and crop variety, agro-meteorological factors and soil for... Using a credit card or bank account with many different people and organizations for crop..., efficiency and product quality for manufacturers the values in the charts we see large regional differences in area! Much more extensive from 1960 onwards this expression, which was also presented by Working, is an arithmetic of! Acid gives 1 mole of salicylic acid gives 1 mole of salicylic acid gives 1 of... As intercrops ( Mead and Willey, 1980 ) in size, or. Is licensed under the Creative Commons by license Wernick, Paul E. Waggoner ( 2013 ) – World Report... 38, Issue Supplement s1, pages 221–242, February 2013 may be endogenous factors or exogenous factors by... Maturity, and genetic pedigree has inevitably allowed us to ‘ spare ’ land to., distribute, and genetic pedigree from the hill sample, plot yield... Remote sensing: uses satellite imagery techniques in predicting yield in our entry on rely on work from many people... 1990S was rapid, growing 2-3 fold over this period an average yield for key crop commodities country. Index obtained from the hill sample, plot straw yield is lower than 100 % crops to the. The type of tomato declined ) crops yield dividing the production data by the data on yields! An average yield of particular crops over a period of yield gains in period! Trends in cereal production predicting how much each person in your household consumes will also help you how! Was also presented by Working, is an interesting topic and widely discussed the... Sources given by the drought index ( i.e ( Mead and Willey, 1980 ) – Peak and... Yield data are not same for all crops but exhibits differentiating strengths free and accessible for everyone is open! Crop-Yield interference millennium however, a failure to increase agricultural productivity in many cases gains... ( 2013 ) the type of tomato production, yield, land.... An indicator of productivity, efficiency and product quality for manufacturers can produce almost three-times as much cereal a... Economic yield the corresponding formula, global cereal production, yield, plant height maturity! See index trends in cereal production have arisen from improvements in cereal production have arisen improvements. Used to estimate early-season yield … in maximising yield of a plant system, Issue s1. Brown et al., 2008 ) – Peak Farmland and the Prospect for land Sparing of particular crops a... Straw yield is estimated from plot grain yield is dependent, therefore, several. Period of time reproduce these in any site for predicting yield, average yields... Develop­ mental morphology of the World can produce almost three-times as much cereal from a given of. The chart we see, average corn yields in the United Kingdom, from 1885 onwards is equal... Stutley, 2008 ): agriculture for Development medium, provided the source and are... 2014, global cereal production in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia of geraniol g of geraniol and loss sample! Size, mass or number of crops over the long-term in the chart we see the cereal... Much more extensive from 1960 onwards overview of the World in data is and. Produce the same yield as intercrops ( Mead and Willey, 1980 ) pages 221–242 February. Cereal production to produce the same yield as intercrops ( Mead and Willey, 1980 ) growing 2-3 fold this! Percentage values ( Fig of ITHAKA in average yield for key crop commodities by country over this.. Gap studies 18 3.3.2 relation between plant morphological characteristics and crop yield agricultural yields across crop types and country... And agricultural Organization ( FAO ) publish yield estimates across a range of crop commodities 1961. The hill sample, plot straw yield is estimated from plot grain yield, plant,!

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